Midwives have existed since the
beginning of humanity. Why, then, is it so difficult to find a midwife in America?
What events occured between the mid 1800's until the present day which nearly made
midwifery extinct in America? And why are more families now looking into homebirth as a
refuge from hospital care?
Extended Breastfeeding Non-Risk #2: Dental Caries
Linda J. Smith, BSE, FACCE, IBCLC
The most important causes of Baby-Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) are documented to be: (1) Enamel defects; (2) High carbohydrate intake in the infant's diet; (3) Oral hygiene of the mother and infant, especially strap mutans; (4) Milk pooling in the baby's mouth from a dripping bottle.
As of April 1992, all known references point back to three articles by Kotlow, Brams, and Gardner. The authors present case reports of 9 babies, only 7 of whom received no bottles. Recently, the lactose in milk has been shown to cause decay when teeth are soaked in it.
This evidence does not establish that direct breastfeeding as a risk factor in BBTD because:
FACT: There is no published, valid evidence that establishes long-term, at-will breastfeeding as a risk factor in BBTD. Limitation of the duration of breastfeeding has documented negative consequences to the baby and mother. "Baby Bottle Tooth Decay" is a disease of artificial feeding.
�Brams M and Maloney J. "Nursing bottle caries" in breastfed children. J Peds 103(3): 415-416, 1983.
�Gardner DE, Norwood JR, Eisenson JE. At-will breastfeeding and dental caries: four case ports. ASDC J Dent Child May-Jun 1977, 1-6.
�Kotlow LA. Breastfeeding: a cause of dental caries in children. J Dent Child May-June 1977, 192-93.
�Woolridge, M., and Baum, J.D. The regulation of human milk flow. Perinatal Nutrition, Vol 6, ed. BS Lindblad. London: Academic Press, 1988.
�Woolridge, M. Anatomy of infant sucking. Midwifery 2:
� 1994 Linda J. Smith[email protected]
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